Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy has recently emerged as a new treatment strategy for patients with relapsed and refractory leukemia and lymphoma, a patient population that usually has few good treatment options and poor long-term survival. CAR-T therapy is a type of immunotherapy in which autologous T lymphocytes from a patient with cancer are genetically engineered to express a specific synthetic transmembrane protein, known as a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), on the T-cell surface. This chimeric protein recognizes tumor-related antigens and also stimulates T-cell responses upon antigen recognition. These therapies redirect the patient’s own immune response to target cancer cells resulting in long-lasting antitumor responses.
Multiple myeloma is a largely progressive and incurable disease where frequent second and later remissions are brief due to increasingly aggressive tumor behavior at each relapse. Fortunately, the treatment landscape for patients with relapsed refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) has changed dramatically over the last several years, with promising new agents and triplet regimens. Frequent updates to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) treatment guidelines, and the latest efficacy and safety data, combined with consideration of tumor features, patient characteristics, treatment history, duration and depth of response to prior treatment, as well as specific patient needs, have to be integrated in the decisional balance in order to offer RRMM patients the most ideal treatment and outcomes currently possible.